Parents look at it quickly!Take you to comprehensively understand the pregnancy files, let you spend your pregnancy scientifically, and give birth to

The results of the inspection came out, and the news has been determined: you are pregnant!As the uterus increases, you become more and more excited, and more and more concerns.There is no doubt that many problems are the symptoms of crazy you are experiencing, but there are many problems related to your "private pregnancy file".What is the "pregnancy file"?It is a summary of the history and basic medical history of obstetrics and gynecology -in other words, your pregnancy background.During the first check -up, the doctor will discuss the background of pregnancy with you (it does have a great impact on the next pregnancy process).At the same time, this chapter will teach you to observe and evaluate your pregnancy files to see how much impact it will affect the 9 -month pregnancy period.

This chapter is not all suitable for you -because each pregnant woman’s pregnancy file is unique.In your next reading, you can choose the part that suits you and skip the unnecessary content.Pregnancy during contraception

"I was pregnant while taking contraceptives. Because I didn’t know pregnant, I took more than a month of medicine. Will this affect my baby?"

The ideal situation is that after taking oral contraceptives, at least once a normal physiological cycle is waiting for pregnancy before trying to get pregnant.However, pregnancy will not always happen in an ideal state, and occasional women will also get pregnant during taking contraceptives.Although you may have read a very scary warning in the drug manual, there is nothing to worry about.There is no sufficient evidence to prove that women’s pregnancy during oral contraceptives will bring great risks to the baby.If you need greater confidence support, tell your doctor about your situation, I believe you will get a peace of mind.

"I was pregnant when I was using the condoms, and I had been using the spermist until I found that I was pregnant. I was worried that my baby would have birth defects."

There is no need to worry about the use of anti -sperm condoms, uterine hats, and conception during the use of sperm killing agent alone.There is no evidence that the use of sperm killer is related to the defect of the fetus, which you can rest assured.In fact, the latest and most convincing experiments have confirmed that even after repeated use of sperm killer in the early pregnancy, the probability of baby’s birth defect will not be increased.Therefore, even if you feel a little accidental, you can relax and enjoy the pregnancy.

"I have been wearing a breeding ring, but recently found that I am pregnant. What can I do to have a healthy pregnancy?"

Pregnancy during contraception is a bit uneasy, but things do happen.The probability of conception when wearing a nursery ring is very low, about 1 ‰, and it is related to the type of birth ring, the length of the placement, and the correct way to place it.

If the low probability event happens -when you are pregnant during the dairy ring, you have two options, and tell the doctor as soon as possible to hear his opinion: Is it taking out the birth ring or staying in the body?Which decision is the most beneficial to you to see if the doctor can see the pull rope on the birth ring through the inspection, the pull rope is convenient for using the ring.If you can’t see the pull rope, your pregnancy process is likely to not be affected.As the amniotic sac increases, the birth ring will be pushed to the uterine wall, and it will generally give birth with the placenta during childbirth.However, if the rope of the birth ring can be seen in the early pregnancy, the risk of infection will be greatly increased.In this case, once you confirm your pregnancy, you should take out the birth ring as soon as possible to make the pregnancy safer and more successful.If the birth ring is not available, it is likely to have a miscarriage, and the risk of miscarriage will drop to 20 % after removing.If you think this probability is not enough, please remember that in all known pregnancy, the abortion rate is 15 % to 20 %.

If you retain the birthplace of the birthplace 3 months before pregnancy, you should be particularly alert to bleeding, convulsions and fever, because the non -removal of the birth ring will cause you to belong to the high incidence of complications in the early stages of pregnancy.If these symptoms occur, tell your doctor quickly.Uterine fibroid

"I have been suffering from uterine fibroids for a few years, and I have never had any problems. Is there any impact when I am pregnant now?"

Uterine fibroids will not be your obstacles to your smooth pregnancy.In fact, in most cases, small benign tumors growing in the inner wall of the uterus will not affect pregnancy.

Sometimes, some pregnant women with uterine fibroids will feel compression or pain in the abdomen.If you feel like this, there is nothing to worry about, but it is recommended that you tell your doctor.Generally 4 to 5 days of bed rest and safe painkillers can reduce symptoms.

Occasionally, uterine fibroids also slightly increase the risk of complications slightly, such as premature peeling, premature birth, and hip delivery, but as long as preventive measures are taken, these small risks will be further reduced.Discuss with the doctor in order to further understand the situation and possible risks of the uterine fibroids of ordinary pregnant women.If the doctor feels that your uterine fibroids will affect vaginal delivery, he may suggest that you choose a cesarean section.In many cases, even the larger uterine fibroids can make a position for the baby with the development of pregnancy and the increase of the uterus.

"A few years ago, I removed a few uterine fibroids through surgery, would it affect my pregnancy this time?"

In most cases, the surgery of removing small uterine fibroids does not affect future pregnancy.However, the extensive removal of large fibroids will make the uterus fragile and unable to bear childbirth.If the doctor reviews your surgical history and thinks that the uterus may not be able to bear childbirth, he will plan to implement cesarean section.You should be familiar with the signs of premature birth to cope with the contraction that occurred before the scheduled operation (refer to Chapter 14 "Before giving birth, falsehood, real delivery"), and formulate emergency plans at the same time, you can rush to the hospital immediately when you are in labor.Endometriosis

"I have been tortured by endometriosis for many years, and now I am finally pregnant. Is there any problem with my pregnancy?"

Patients with endometriosis usually face two challenges: difficulty and pain in pregnancy.Now you have defeated the first challenge and will become more and more smooth in the future. Pregnancy will help you defeat the second challenge.

Symptoms of endometriosis can indeed be reduced during pregnancy, which seems to be due to changes in hormones.After ovulation stops, the ectopic endometrium usually becomes smaller and softened.Some women have improved more obvious, and many women have no symptoms during the whole pregnancy.Some people are becoming more uncomfortable because of fetal growth and fetal movement stronger, especially when the fetus kicks into the place where the uterine pain is painful.Fortunately, endometriosis will not endanger pregnancy and childbirth (if you have undergone uterine surgery, doctors will be more inclined to choose cesarean section).

However, pregnancy will only temporarily alleviate the symptoms of endometriosis and will not cure it.After pregnancy and lactation (sometimes earlier), these symptoms appear again.Vaginal mirror

"One year ago I had done a vaginal examination and a cervical biopsy. Now I am pregnant, will there be risks during pregnancy?"

Usually, vagoscopic examinations will be performed after the conventional cervical plastering test found that there are abnormal cervical cells.This simple inspection uses a special microscope to better observe the vagina and cervix.If abnormal cells are found in the cervical scrub, the doctor will do a cervical biopsy or cervical cone cutting (that is, take an appropriate amount of biopsy on the inspection site, and send it to the laboratory to further analyze and evaluate it), freezing surgeryOr) or cervical high -frequency electromotive cycle (leep knife surgery, the doctor will use a painless current to remove the affected cervical tissue).The good news is that most women who have done these operations can get pregnant normally.However, according to the different tissue resection during surgery, the risk of complications of some women’s pregnancy may increase, such as incomplete cervical function and premature birth.Ensure that the doctor’s doctor understands your cervix can better guide your pregnancy.

If you find abnormal cells during the first birth check, doctors usually do a vagoscopic examination for you, and biopsy and other further examinations often delay until the baby is born.Human nipple virus (HPV)

"Will the genital infection of human papilloma virus affect my pregnancy?"

In the United States, reproductive papilloma virus is the most common sexually transmitted virus, affecting more than 75 % of sexual active people.Because HPV rarely cause obvious symptoms and usually heal itself in 6 to 10 months, many people do not know that although many people infected the virus.

However, HPV sometimes causes symptoms.Some viruses can cause changes in cervical cells (can be detected through cervical plastering); others may cause genital warts (in appearance may be difficult to distinguish skin damage, or soft fluff -like flat protrusions or cauliflower -like masses,The color is different from gray to dark red).The genital warts usually appear near vagina, vulva, clitoris and anus.Although most of the genital warts do not hurt, occasionally burning, itching and even bleeding.The genital warts usually heal within a few months.

So what impact can germ infection with nipple virus?Fortunately, there is basically no effect.However, some women found that pregnancy increased the symptoms of genital warts.If you belong to this situation and the genitals do not have a tendency to heal, doctors may recommend some treatment plans suitable for pregnancy.Genital warts can be safely removed by frozen, electrotherapy, laser and other methods.However, there are also some cases that need to be delayed until after delivery.

If you have no infection with HPV, the doctor will also check the cervix to confirm whether you have abnormal cervical cells.If abnormalities are found, he will do a cervical biopsy for you after delivery to remove abnormal cells.

Because HPV is highly contagious, adhering to a personality partner and a safe sex life is the best way to prevent recurrence.Herpes

"I have genital herpes, will the baby be infected?"

Other sexually transmitted diseases

Most sexual transmission diseases can affect pregnancy, which is not surprising.Fortunately, many sexually transmitted diseases are easy to diagnose and be treated, without worrying even during pregnancy.However, because many women do not realize that they have infected these diseases, the Center for Disease Prevention and Control recommends that pregnant women are checked as soon as possible to receive the following common sexually transmitting diseases: chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomotropy, hepatitis B, AIDS virus and syphilis.

Remember, sexually transmitting diseases will not only occur in a group or a certain class.For people of any age, regardless of race and ethnic groups, what kind of income level, living in small towns or big cities may suffer from sexually transmitted diseases.The main sexually transmitted diseases are:

gonorrhea.For a long time, people know that gonorrhea can lead to conjunctivitis and blindness, which will be severely transmitted by babies born through infected producers.Therefore, in the first birth check, pregnant women have to do conventional gonorrhea examinations.Sometimes, especially high -risk people who are sick, they will be repeatedly checked during pregnancy.If gonorrhea infection is found, the doctor will immediately use antibiotics.After the treatment, bacterial culture will be done to determine the complete recovery of pregnant women.For the sake of caution, the doctor will also apply antibiotic ointment in the eyes of the newborn.

syphilis.Because syphilis can cause a variety of birth defects and dead fetuses, the examination of syphilis is usually a conventional project for the first birth check.The virus usually reaches the placenta at 4 months of pregnancy. Before that, it can prevent it from harming the fetus.The news that is very happy is: In recent years, the probability of transmission between syphilis between mothers and infants is rapidly declining.

Chlamydia infection.Chlamydia infection is the most common infectious disease spread in maternal and infantile. It has potential harm to both mothers and babies. Therefore, it is necessary to screely screen for chlamydia during pregnancy. In the past, women with multiple personalized partners had a higher probability of infection.About half of women infected with chlamydia did not have obvious symptoms, so no infection was not found without examination.

Timely treatment of chlamydia infection before or during pregnancy can prevent infection to babies during childbirth (mostly the symptoms of pneumonia caused by chlamydia, and eye infections are sometimes serious).Although the best time to treat is before pregnancy, the use of antibiotics (commonly used as Azithromycin) can also effectively prevent baby infection.The baby’s use of antibiotic ointment immediately after birth can prevent the baby from being infected with chlamydia, gonorrhea, and eye infection.

Ammeter disease.Trichomonas is a sexually transmitted disease caused by parasites (also known as Maetoxic disease). The symptoms are leucorrhea green foam -shaped, with smell and itching.However, about half of patients have no symptoms.Although trichomoniasis does not cause severe diseases or other pregnancy problems (mothers will not have much impact on the baby), the symptoms are very annoying.Generally, treatment only needs to be treated when pregnant women have symptoms.

Infection with AIDS virus.At present, AIDS virus examination has become a routine test during pregnancy.The American Society of Obstetrics and Gynecologists also believes that no matter how high the risk is, each pregnant woman should do this test.The infection of AIDS virus during pregnancy is a great threat to both mothers and babies.About 25 % of babies born of AIDS detection are positive and unprepared mothers will be infected 6 months after birth.Fortunately, according to the existing treatment measures, the situation is relatively optimistic.However, before taking action, all AIDS tests are positive for review (although the accuracy of the inspection is high, sometimes there are false positive conditions, and women without infection may also detect positive results).If the results of the second examination are still positive, it is necessary to consult with AIDS and its treatment plan.For pregnant women with positive AIDS virus examination, Qidovin or other anti -reverse virus drugs can be given.These treatments can significantly reduce the risk of maternal and baby transmission, and there are no harmful side effects.Care section (before the beginning of the contraction and the breakdown) can greatly reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect that you have been infectious to spread the disease, apply for a related examination to the doctor.If the test results are positive, you must receive treatment (including your partner if necessary).Treatment will not only maintain your health, but also protect your baby’s health.

During pregnancy, genital herpes are really worrying, but there is no need to be afraid.In fact, if you and doctors take protection measures during pregnancy and during childbirth, the baby is very likely to be born safely and healthy, and is not infected by herpes virus at all.The following is the knowledge you need to understand:

First of all, it is rare for newborn infections. If the mother is infected again during pregnancy (that is, she has suffered from herpes), the probability of baby infection is less than 1 %; secondOnce infection) increases risk of abortion and premature birth, but this infection is not common.Even if the baby is facing a very high risk of infection (the first herpes for the first time when the mother is in a giving birth), there is still a 50 % probability of sparing probability. In the end, although herpes is a more serious disease, the harm to the newborn is much smaller than in the past than in the past.It’s right.

So, if you are infected with herpes before pregnancy, the baby’s infection is very small.Now there are good medical conditions, the probability of baby infection will be smaller.

In order to protect the baby, mothers who have suffered from herpes and herpes during pregnancy usually need to take antiviral drugs.Pregnant women with active skin lesions during childbirth should generally take cesarean section.Once the baby is infected, antiviral drugs should be given immediately.

In addition, even after childbirth, even in the active period of infection, the baby can be used to make the baby from being infected by the virus through appropriate prevention measures.

Symptoms and signs of genital herpes

The first infection of herpes (that is, the first infection) is the most likely to be transmitted to the fetus, so if you have the following symptoms, you must notify the doctor: fever, headache, sluggish, and more than two days of physical pain, accompanied by genital pain, pain, pain,Itching, urination pain, vaginal or urethral flowing foreign body, groin tenderness, and blisters occur after the wound.Herpes can usually be cured within 2 to 3 weeks, but this period is also a period of infection.In vitro fertilization

"I am pregnant with my baby through the body. Will my pregnancy be different from others?"

congratulations!In fact, as long as the first three months of the pregnancy, the laboratory instead of pregnant babies in bed does not have much effect on pregnancy.However, your early pregnancy process is still a bit different from others: because a positive pregnancy test result does not fully guarantee a smooth pregnancy, and if the pregnancy failure fails, it is a loss in terms of spirituality and money.Moreover, whether the implanted fertilized eggs can be developed as the fetus will not be known immediately, so pregnant women who have in vitro fertilized are often more brave than most of other pregnant women.In addition, if you tried to suffer from internal fertilization but miscarriage, sex and other physical activities will be limited.As a preventive measure, the doctor will give you a lutenone tire for two months before pregnancy.

Once this stage has passed, you can enjoy the pregnancy life like other pregnant women -unless you find that you find that you have a multi -choice like other 30 % of the in vitro fertilized mothers.If you are in this case, please refer to Chapter 16.Second pregnancy

"This is my second pregnancy, will it be different from the first pregnancy?"

Two pregnancy will not be exactly the same, and no one says how much the 9 months are from the last experience.Of course, for the first pregnancy and subsequent pregnancy process, there are still some things in common:

• You may "feel" pregnant faster.The expectant mothers who are pregnant for the second pregnancy may be more likely to identify early symptoms and get along with them. These symptoms may be very different from the first pregnancy -for example, morning vomiting, indigestion, and other symptoms of gastric discomfortIt may be heavier (or lighter); you may be more tired (if you will be a snoring when you are pregnant, you may want to lie on the bed all day), or you may feel better (maybe because you are too busy, orI can’t feel it when I get used to this fatigue); the symptoms of frequent urination may also change (it may occur earlier).

Some symptoms will be significantly reduced in the second and subsequent pregnancy, such as greedy or anorexia, bigger breasts and sensitivity, and worry (because you have experienced all this, knowing that pregnancy does not have to panic).

• You will show up earlier, because the abdomen and uterine muscles are more loose, so compared with the first pregnancy, you will "swell" earlier this time.So you will also notice that you are different from the last pregnancy. This baby seems to be a bigger than the previous.Another consequence of this abdominal muscle relaxation is that back pain and other pregnancy pain may increase.

• Feel the fetal movement earlier.Also because of the relaxation of abdominal and uterine muscles, you are likely to feel your baby kicks you as early as 16 weeks.On the other hand, after all, I have experienced it before, so when you have the same feeling, you know that this is the baby’s fetal movement.

• You may not be too excited.It’s not that you don’t expect your baby’s arrival, but you will find your excitement (and the urge to tell everyone around you).This is a normal reaction, which does not affect your love for this baby.Remember, the baby in the belly has completely occupied your body and mind.

• Your childbirth process may be faster and easier.The relaxation of the abdomen and uterine muscles finally brings you a benefit -thanks to the last delivery, the relaxation of the muscles of the relevant parts can make the second baby come out faster, so that the time of each output will be shortened accordingly, and the childbirth time will be shortened.It will also greatly reduce.

You might hesitate to tell the first child about how to tell the news about the new family member’s arrival, telling him realistic and reasonablely, and let him complete the change from the only child to the role of brother/sister during your pregnancy.Essence

"My last pregnancy and childbirth process was perfect. Now I am pregnant again, I am worried that this time will not be as smooth as last time."

You are likely to give birth to this baby very smoothly this time. For you who have already given birth to a baby, your physical conditions will be more adapted to this pregnancy.Moreover, every time you get pregnant, you have the opportunity to grasp your lucky index. As long as you adhere to a good choice in terms of medical care, diet, exercise, and lifestyle habits, the possibility of this baby will increase accordingly.Repeated pregnancy experience

"My first pregnancy is very unsuccessful -almost experienced all the symptoms described in the book. Will I not be lucky this time?"

In general, the tone of all pregnancy processes after the first pregnancy is basically the same.But for women with more comfortable pregnancy experience, you may not be as good as them; however, your consistent unsuccessful pregnancy also has great hopes to improve.Each pregnancy experience is different as each baby.For example, if the symptoms that make you ca n’t eat in the first pregnancy are morning vomiting and greedy, this time will only make you a little uncomfortable.Although luck, genetic factors, and the symptoms of pregnancy have been closely related to this time, they can still change their pregnancy through some controllable factors.These factors include:

Health status.Good physical conditions make your pregnancy more comfortable.

Weight gain.Weight stable growth and control within a certain range (reference to Chapter 7 "How much weight") can make you avoid or minimize the discomfort during pregnancy: hemorrhoids, varicose veins, stretch marks, back pain, fatigue, indigestion and shortness of breath.

diet.Although I can’t guarantee, a healthy diet (reference to Chapter 5) can make each expectant mother’s pregnancy life more comfortable and healthier.Diet should not only avoid or minimize the pain of vomiting and indigestion to the greatest extent, but also prevent excessive fatigue, indigestion and hemorrhoids, prevent urinary tract infection and iron deficiency anemia, and headache.Even if you still feel discomfort during pregnancy, a healthy diet can be escorted to the baby’s healthy birth.

fitness.A moderate amount of exercise can fully improve physical fitness.In the second and subsequent pregnancy, because the abdominal muscles became loose, expectant mothers were more vulnerable to various pain (especially back pain), and exercise was even more important.

The rhythm of life.In many cases of intense and busy life, it will even cause the symptoms of the most tortured people during pregnancy -morning vomiting, and at the same time, it will also aggravate other symptoms: fatigue, headache, back pain, and indigestion.Seeking the help of family members, getting out of the things that torture people, reducing the workload, temporarily putting unimportant affairs aside, learning relaxation skills or practicing yoga can help you feel better.

Other children.Some expectant mothers who already have children have found that because they want to raise big children, they have little discomfort during pregnancy.However, some women also felt that the children re -imposed their pregnancy response around the day.For example, when sending children to school and busy cooking, the symptoms of vomiting will increase; because there is no time to rest, the fatigue will increase; if you often pull or hold the big child, be careful to find the door;You will even suffer from constipation because you don’t have time to go to the toilet. At the same time, if you are sick, the probability of your cold or other diseases will increase (refer to Chapter 20 on how to prevent and cope with the disease).

When you need to take care of other children (the days after the first delivery starts), it is obviously unrealistic to put the pregnant body first.But remember to take more time to take care of yourself -when reading the story book for the eldest child, you raised your feet. You can also make a cricket when you are naked; if you do n’t have time to sit down, you have a good meal, andTo develop healthy snack habits; at the same time, learn to accept the help of people around you -the labor of others can help you reduce the burden on your body and greatly reduce the troubles of pregnancy.

"I have severe complications during my first pregnancy. Will I be so hard this time?"

There is a complication of a pregnancy that does not mean that the same is true next time.Some pregnancy complications do occur repeatedly, but they do not appear every time.Some complications are caused by a certain infection or emergencies, which generally does not recur.For the daily lifestyle (smoking, drinking, drug use), it was once in a harmful environment (such as lead), or the complications during pregnancy during the help of doctors in time.Will recur.If complications caused by chronic diseases (such as diabetes, hypertension, etc.) are treated or controlled before or before pregnancy or early pregnancy, the risk of recurrence can be greatly reduced.Remember: Even if the complications of the last pregnancy may recur during this pregnancy, early examination and treatment will make the results completely different.

Talk to the doctor about the complications that you have occurred in your last pregnancy and see what measures can be taken to prevent recurrence.Regardless of the problems you face and what are the causes, the guiding suggestions for answering the previous question will help you and your baby to spend your pregnancy more comfortably and safely.The subsequent pregnancy

"I was pregnant unexpectedly less than 10 weeks after I gave birth to the first baby. Does this affect the health of me and the current baby?"

The family grows a little earlier than you expected?Before you fully recovered from the hard work of the last pregnancy, you hurriedly entered the next journey of pregnancy. The first thing you have to do is relax, relax, and then relax.Although the two too close pregnancy will lose their mother’s health, they can still take many measures to help the body actively face the following pregnancy challenges:

• Get the best prenatal care.Once you notice that you are pregnant, you will immediately start doing prenatal care.

• Try to eat as well (reference Chapter 5).Your body is likely to have no chance to reserve nutrients such as vitamins, which will cause you to malnutrition -especially when you still need breastfeeding, you need to consume as many nutrients as possible to prevent you and your body from the body in your body.Babies are malnourished, especially at the intake of iron and protein (consulting doctors need to take relevant supplements), and continue to take vitamins required for pregnancy.Don’t eat less because you don’t have time or tiredness. A healthy diet can help you deal with a busy life with sufficient nutrition.

• Appropriate weight gain.The new baby will not care if you have enough time to lose weight during the last pregnancy.Unless your doctor has special requirements, you also ask you to gain weight again this time.Therefore, from now on, give up the weight loss plan temporarily.Under the strict monitoring, the weight increased weight, especially the increased part of the high -quality diet, is often easy to reduce after childbirth -and in the future you need to take care of a toddler child and a baby to be fed, it is easier to lose weight easier to lose weight.EssenceObserve your weight changes carefully. If you find that the numbers on the weight scale do not climb as usual, pay close attention to the calories of intake, and refer to Chapter 8 of suggestions about increasing weight.

• Fair feeding.If the big child is breastfeeding, you can continue to breastfeed, as long as you feel that you can be competent.But if you feel exhausted during breastfeeding, you can consider mixing with prescription milk or weaning.You can consult the doctor and decide.If you decide to continue breastfeeding, you must ensure sufficient calories to meet the nutrients of the big children and the baby in the belly.At the same time, enough rest is essential.

• rest.You need to rest more than ordinary people and new mothers.Get full rest not only requires determination, but also the help of spouses and others -they should try to help you bear housework, cook and take care of your baby’s work.The order is in order to lift things in a priority: When your baby nap, immediately put down the less important tasks and miscellaneous services at hand, and let yourself lie down and rest.If it is not breastfeeding, let the baby’s father be responsible for the feeding work at night; if it is breastfeeding, when the child is crying at least two in the morning, the father should be responsible for sending the baby into your arms.

• sports.Pay attention to maintaining moderate exercise to increase vitality, but do not make yourself feel exhausted.If you are too busy to do pregnancy exercise regularly, you can move your body when taking care of your child.For example, put your baby in a stroller and push a walk, choose a club or community center that provides parenting services to participate in the pregnancy exercise course or swimming.

• Eliminate or minimize the risk factors of pregnancy, such as smoking, drinking, etc.Your body and fetus can’t bear too much pressure.Have a big family

"I have been pregnant for the sixth time, will this bring extra risk to me and my baby?"

Fortunately, for you and children -women who have received good prenatal care even have a high probability to harvest healthy and normal babies even in the sixth child.In fact, in addition to the small probability of multiple twins, your pregnancy is still a pleasant journey, and it will never be more complicated than the first and second tires.

Enjoy your pregnancy and big family!However, please pay attention to the following:

• Rest -cherish all opportunities to rest.Maybe you feel that pregnancy is a piece of small dish, but this does not mean that you can ignore the rest.Each pregnant woman needs enough rest, and for pregnant women who need to take care of a big family, more rest time is needed.

• Seeking help -make full use of all the help you can get, which will help you get the time you need.Your partner should shoulder the responsibility of taking care of children and housework. You can also teach children larger to become more independent, arranging them with some of the familywork that can be in line with age.For the housework that is not important and cannot be pushed to others, put it aside for the time being.

• Eat well.Moms who need to take care of several children’s diet are most often ignored their own diet.The habit of not eating and eating garbage and food in accordance with the law will soon have a adverse effect on you, and it will also affect the upcoming baby.Therefore, you must spend more time eating.Eating a healthy snack is a good habit, which is very beneficial to you who are pregnant.

• Observe your weight.Mothers who are pregnant many times will weigh thousands of grams each time, which is very normal.If you are like this, you must pay special attention to high -efficiency diet plans and control your weight within the scope of the target.On the other hand, be careful not to increase enough weight because you are too busy or not.Abortion history

"I used to have a miscarriage twice, would I affect this pregnancy?"

Multiple abortion that occurs within 3 months before pregnancy does not seem to affect subsequent pregnancy.Therefore, if your previous miscarriage occurs before the 14th weeks of pregnancy, you don’t have to worry too much.However, multiple miscarriage in the middle of 3 months (14-27 weeks) during pregnancy may slightly increase the risk of premature birth.No matter what situation you belong to, you must ensure that the doctor understands your history of abortion.The more you are familiar with your obstetrics and gynecology history, the better your care.Premature history

"I was born prematurely when I was pregnant for the first time. I have now got rid of all the risk factors during pregnancy, but I am still very worried that this pregnancy will be premature."

Congratulations to you, in order to ensure the health of this pregnancy, you have done all your efforts -your baby is likely to be born on time.This is a great step.Of course, you also need to complete some important tasks so that you can minimize the probability of re -birth.

First, consult a doctor’s latest scientific research results on preventing premature birth.Studies have found that for women with a history of premature birth, injection of progesterone (or using progesterone suppositories) at 16-36 weeks of pregnancy can greatly reduce the probability of premature birth again.If you have a premature history, remember to consult your doctor whether plants to treat you.

Tell your doctor

Regardless of your history of obstetrics and gynecology, it is not time to hide it.It is much important to confess all the history of obstetrics and gynecology to the doctor.The history of pregnancy, the history of natural abortion, the history of artificial abortion, the history of surgery, and the experience of infection that may affect this pregnancy should be informed of the doctor.The more thorough the doctor understands you, the more you can take care of.

Secondly, there are already two screening that can predict the risk of premature birth. You can consult which doctor is suitable for you.Generally, these examinations are only recommended for high -risk pregnant women -because the positive examination results cannot accurately predict premature birth, but the negative results can avoid some unnecessary treatment and unnecessary anxiety.Fetal fiber connection protein testing (FFN testing) will check a special protein in the vagina. This protein only appears when the amniovisp is separated from the uterine wall, and can be used as an early indicator of delivery.If your FFN test results are negative, premature premature delivery will not occur within a few weeks after the test.If the result is positive, it means that the risk of premature birth is very high. Doctors may take measures to extend your pregnancy and help the fetal lungs to prepare to cope with possible premature birth.

The second screen is to check the length of the cervix.When the cervical length is measured through an ultrasonic, if the cervix is shorter or the cervical opening shows signs of opening, the doctor may take some measures to reduce the risk of premature birth.For example, you are required to rest in bed or take a cervical rings for pregnant women who are less than 22 weeks of pregnancy.

Knowledge is power -knowledge can help your second baby do not be born too fast. This is really good news.Cervical function is incomplete

"I was naturally aborted when I was 5 months pregnant for the first time. The doctor said that it was caused by incomplete cervical function. I had a positive result when I did early pregnancy test. Now I am very worried that the same problem occurs this time."

The good news is: This situation will not happen again.Because the doctor has diagnosed the cause of incomplete cervical function when your first pregnancy fails, then the doctor must have a way to prevent another abortion.Through appropriate treatment and careful observation, this time you are likely to be healthy and give birth to your baby safely.(If you change your doctor this time, tell him the medical history of incomplete cervical function, so that you can get the best care.)

The incomparable cervical function means that as the fetus and uterus increase, the cervix mouth is prematurely opened due to pressure.According to calculations, this situation occurs every 100 cases of pregnancy, and 10 % to 20 % occur in natural miscarriage in the middle of 3 months of pregnancy.There are many reasons that cause incomplete cervical function, including genetic defects, caused by previous childbirth, widely cone cutting biopsy (take cervical cell biopsy to confirm whether a test of pre -cancer lesions), cervical surgery, and laser therapy, etc.Stretching or severe tearing.Mother -in -law sometimes causes incomplete cervical function, but as long as there is only one baby in the next pregnancy, there will be no recurrence.

When a woman has a natural miscarriage in the middle of the pregnancy, a painless cervical canal before abortion gradually disappears (shorten, thinner), and the cervical mouth expansion and vaginal bleeding that is not accompanied by obvious contractions can be diagnosed as the cervical function.Not complete.

Archives and premature birth during pregnancy

Tell you a good news: The possibility of your baby was born after the due date.The probability of premature birth (less than 37 weeks of pregnancy) is only 12 %, and about half of the premature premature pregnant women have high risk factors, such as once pregnant with many twins.

If the file during pregnancy shows that you have a high risk of premature birth, how can you prevent premature birth?In some cases, even if a risk factor is confirmed, there is no need to take measures, but sometimes it is necessary to control the risk factors that may cause premature birth, or to minimize its impact on the baby.Try to eliminate the known risk factors, which can greatly increase the probability of the baby’s peacefulness until the due date.Here are some controllable risk factors that may cause premature birth:

Growing too little or too much weight.Too little weight gain will increase the probability of premature birth, but this does not mean that you have too much weight.Properly increased by your pregnancy archives to create a healthier uterine environment for the baby, so that he can stay in the due date.

Insufficient nutrition.Make your baby’s life the most healthier start is not how much you gain weight -but to increase weight through a healthy diet.The lack of essential nutrients (especially folic acid) diet will increase the risk of premature birth; a nutritional diet can reduce this risk.In fact, evidence has proven that the regular healthy diet can reduce the risk of premature birth.

Standing too long and heavy efforts.Ask your doctor if you should reduce your usual time, especially in the late pregnancy.Some experimental studies have proved that long -term standing and heavy physical labor are related to premature birth.

Excessive emotional pressure.Studies have proved that excessive emotional pressure is related to premature birth.You can take measures to remove factors that cause excessive pressure or minimize it (such as resigned from unhealthy high pressure work), but some pressures are inevitable (such as losing work or death or death).However, many pressures can still be relieved by relaxing skills, reasonable nutrition, and talks with spouses, friends, and doctors.

Drink and drug use.Pregnant women’s intake of alcohol or illegal drugs will greatly increase the possibility of premature birth.

Smoking.There is a close connection between smoking during pregnancy and increasing premature birth risk.It is best to quit smoking before pregnancy or quit smoking as soon as possible after pregnancy, but it is not too late at any time to quit smoking, far better than not to quit smoking.

Gingival infection.Some studies have shown that gum disease is related to premature birth.Researchers suspected that bacteria that caused gum infection directly entered the blood circulation and reached the fetus, which caused premature birth.Another researcher proposed a new possibility: bacteria that leading to gum infection actually activated the immune system and induced cervical and uterine inflammation, which caused premature birth.Therefore, doing a good job of oral health and daily dental care can prevent bacterial infections, thereby reducing the risk of premature birth.Treatment of existing oral infections before pregnancy can reduce the risk of complications and premature birth during pregnancy.

Cervical is incomplete.The premature birth due to incomplete cervical function can be tightly monitored by ultrasound to reduce the risk by monitoring cervical length or suture cervix (refer to Chapter 3 "Cervical Disability").But unfortunately, incomplete cervical function can generally be discovered only after a late natural abortion or premature birth.

History of premature birth.Women with a history of premature delivery are more likely to have premature birth. If you have such an experience, doctors will usually give you progesterone in the second and third trimester of pregnancy to prevent premature birth.

The risk factors mentioned below are uncontrollable factor, but in some cases, it can be changed through appropriate measures.Knowing that these factors can help you and doctors control risks better, even if premature birth is inevitable, the final result can be greatly improved.

Duoduo.The average number of twins will be born 3 weeks in advance (it is usually considered that the twins should be 37 weeks during pregnancy, which means that production is not a premature birth at all).In the third trimester, good prenatal care, ideal nutritional status, eliminating other risk factors, and paying attention to rest and exercise at the same time, so as to avoid premature delivery.For more information, refer to Chapter 16.

The cervix disappears and expands prematurely.Some women will have unknown cervical pipes and open their cervix prematurely. Recent research found that this phenomenon is sometimes related to the short cervix.Conventional ultrasound examinations of cervix in the middle of pregnancy can find women with high risk.

Materia Medica during pregnancy.Pregnancy diabetes, signs of eclampies, excessive amniotic fluid, and placental problems (such as premature placenta or premature placenta) will increase the possibility of premature birth.Try to control these diseases as much as possible, which can extend pregnancy and let the baby born as scheduled.

chronic.Some chronic diseases, such as hypertension, heart, lung, kidney diseases, diabetes, etc., can increase the risk of premature birth, and good medical conditioning and self -care measures can reduce risk.

Generally infected.Some infections (some sexually transmitted diseases, uterus, cervix, vagina, kidney, and amniotic fluid infection) can cause prospective mothers to become high -risk people in premature birth.If the infection is harmful to the fetus, premature birth is a self -rescue measure to protect the fetus from leaving the harmful environment.Prevention or rapid treatment of infection can effectively prevent the fetus from being born prematurely.

Pregnant women are less than 17 years old.Specific mothers of adolescents are one of the high -incidence crowds of premature birth.Good nutritional conditions and prenatal nursing measures can ensure that mothers and babies can develop healthy, thereby reducing the risk of premature birth.

In order to protect this pregnancy, one day in the 3 months (12 to 22 weeks) in the middle of pregnancy, the obstetrician may perform cervical rings for you (a small surgery sutured in cervical mouth).Although the latest research has questioned the effect of ring -tabs, many doctors will still choose this conventional approach.However, in more cases, the doctor will do an ultrasonic or vaginal examination first to confirm that your cervix is shorter or the cervix is opened before surgery.This simple operation is performed through the vagina under local anesthesia, and normal activities can be restored in 12 hours after surgery.Disassembling time depends on the doctor and your specific situation. Usually you can remove the wires a few weeks before the due date.If there is no infection, bleeding, premature breakthrough in the fetal membrane during pregnancy, wait until the childbirth starts to disassemble.

In the 3 months and last 3 months in the middle of pregnancy, we must pay attention to the following signs that may be problematic: there is a sense of compression, vaginal bleeding or blood secretions, abnormal frequent urination, or feeling vagina with mass lumps in the lower abdomen.If any of the above situation occurs, the doctor is immediately notified.RH blood type inconsistent

"The doctor said that my blood type is Rh negative. What does this mean for my baby?"

Fortunately, this situation is not very serious, and you and your doctor have already understood this situation and have relevant knowledge. As long as you take some simple measures, you can fully and effectively prevent the damage caused by RH blood type disagreement.

What does RH blood type inconsistent mean?Why take preventive measures?A little biological knowledge can help you understand this problem quickly and accurately.Each cell surface of the body has many antigens, which is an antenna -like substance, and one of the antigens is the RH factor.Inherited blood cells sometimes have this factor (RH positive), and sometimes (Rh negative).During pregnancy, if the mother’s blood cells do not have RH factor (Rh negative), and the baby’s blood cells have inherited the father’s genes with RH factor (RH positive), the mother’s immune system will depending on the baby (and the baby’s RH positive blood cell)For "foreign antigen".As a normal immune response, the mother will mobilize the antibody of the whole body to attack the foreign antigen.This is the inconsistent RH blood type that everyone knows.

In the early stages of pregnancy (usually at the first birth), all pregnant women have to do an RH factor examination, and 85 % of pregnant women’s RH factor test results are positive.If you are the same, it is not important to whether the mother and child blood type is in line, because whether the baby’s blood type is RH positive or negative, his blood cells will not activate the mother’s immune system.

If the blood type of the expectant mother is Rh, it is necessary to detect the blood of the prospective father to determine whether it is positive or negative.If it happens to be RH negative, your baby must be RH negative (parents are RH negatives, and it is impossible to give birth to RH -positive babies), which also means that your immune system will not mistake your baby to "foreign antigen"; but ifThe prospective father is RH positive, and the baby is likely to inherit his Rh factor, causing you to be inconsistent with your baby’s blood type.

Rh blood types do not cause any problems in the first pregnancy.The bother starting with the blood of the baby (including artificial abortion and natural miscarriage) when the first pregnancy and childbirth enters the mother’s circulation system: the mother’s natural protective immune response will produce antibodies against the RH factor.If the mother does not conceive a baby with a blood type with RH, these antibodies themselves are not harmful, but once the baby is pregnant, the harm of the antibody will appear.In subsequent pregnancy, these new antibodies may enter the baby’s circulatory system and attack red blood cells through the placenta, causing or light (low concentration of mothers) or hemolysis (high concentration of mothers) and cause baby anemia.In rare cases, the mother formed an antibody when she was pregnant for the first time, which occurred in the case of a small amount of blood in the baby entering the mother circulation system through the placenta.

When the RH blood type is inconsistent, the key to protecting the baby is to prevent the development of RH antibodies.Most doctors will take both princes. During the 28 weeks of pregnancy, pregnant women with blood types of RH are injected with RH factor immunoglin (Rhogam) similar to vaccines to prevent antibodies from spreading.After delivery, if the baby’s blood test is RH positive, a dose of immunoglobulin will be injected for the mother within 72 hours; if the baby’s blood is negative, no need to injection.For women with natural abortion, ectopic pregnancy, artificial abortion, velvet biopsy (CVS), amniocemic puncture, vaginal bleeding, or trauma during pregnancy, it is also best to inject this immunoglobulin, which can effectively prevent deliveryThere are problems.

If the RH -negative pregnant woman did not injected immunoglobulin during the last pregnancy, and it was checked that the RH antibody that could harm RH -positive babies in the body found that shellacum puncture was performed to check the baby’s blood type.If the baby’s blood type is RH negative, the mother and baby’s blood type combined, there is no need to worry about treatment; if the baby’s blood type is RH positive, and the mother’s blood type is not in line, the mother must accept regular monitoring to observe the antibody concentration.If the antibody concentration is too high, it may cause risks, and the baby’s condition must be evaluated through ultrasonic examination.If the baby’s safety is threatened due to the development of hemolymia or RH blood type inconsistent development, he needs to lose Rh negative blood for him.

Because of the use of immunoglobulin, the probability of blood transfusion is significantly reduced due to inconsistent RH blood type, which is even less than 1 %.In the future, such a life -saving means may create miracles in medical history.

Similar blood types may be caused by other factors, such as the Kell antigen, but this blood type is not uncommon.If the prospective dad has this antigen and the quasi -mother does not have it, there may be problems.The conventional screening in the first conventional blood test will find the Kell antibody in the mother’s blood.Once this antibody is discovered, it will test whether the prospective father is Kell’s positive, and the medical methods taken are the same as the RH blood type.Rubber antibody level

"When I was a kid, I vaccinated the rubella vaccine, but the prenatal examination showed that my rubella antibody level was low. Should I worry about this?"

In fact, don’t worry too much, this is not because the rubella will not endanger uninvited babies (it is still harmful in the first three months of pregnancy, refer to Chapter 20 "rubella"), but because it is difficult to cure.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States believes that rubella cannot be cured, but most children and adults have or are about to vaccinate the rubella vaccine, and the risk of illness has also greatly reduced.

Although you may not vaccinate during pregnancy, you may vaccinate new rubella vaccines after childbirth.Please rest assured that even if you are breastfeeding, vaccination is safe.obesity

"I am about 27 kg, will I bring me danger to me and my baby during pregnancy?"

Most ultra -overweight and even obese mothers (the definition of obesity is more than 20 % of the standard weight), and can spend pregnancy very healthy and give birth to healthy babies.Nevertheless, obesity often threatens health, which is also a problem that cannot be taken light during pregnancy.After wearing a baby, the weight of overweight will increase the risk of complications during pregnancy, including hypertension and gestational diabetes.Surgery will bring some realistic pregnancy problems at the same time: First of all, if you do not rely on ultrasound examination, it will be difficult to accurately calculate your pregnancy. On the one hand, it is irregular due to obesity. On the other handStandards (including abdominal circumference, palace height, uterine size, fetal heart, etc.) have been difficult to work because your fat layer is too thick.At the same time, fat also makes it difficult for doctors to judge the size of the baby and fetal position (for you, it is difficult to feel that the baby kicks you for the first time).Babies produced by obese women are usually greater than ordinary babies (even if they are pregnant, they can not eat a diet, especially women with diabetes), which may cause dystocia.Moreover, once a cesarean section must be implemented, the thick abdomen will make surgery more complicated, and it is more difficult to recover after surgery.

Immunization during pregnancy

Various infections during pregnancy can cause problems, so you should pay attention to all necessary immunization before pregnancy.Most drug reduction vaccines are not recommended during pregnancy, including leprosy vaccine (measles, rubella, mumps vaccine) and chickenpox vaccine.

After 3 months of pregnancy, you can safely vaccinate tetanus, leukine and hepatitis B vaccine.The American Center for Disease Control and Prevention also suggested that all pregnant women should be vaccinated in the influenza season.

Regarding which vaccines can be safely vaccinated during pregnancy, and which vaccine you need (especially those who travel abroad), please consult a doctor.

Next, it also involves a problem of pregnancy comfort. To be precise, it is uncomfortable.Unfortunately, as weight gain, symptoms of uncomfortable pregnancy are also increasing.Overweight (whether it is pre -pregnancy or overweight) will bring more serious back pain, varicose veins, edema, heart burning and more other symptoms.

Stunning?In fact, don’t worry.You and doctors can take a lot of measures to minimize the risks you and your baby are facing and relieve discomfort -just need to pay more effort.From the perspective of medical care, compared with other low -risk pregnant women, you may need to receive more examinations: ultrasonic examination in the early pregnancy can more accurately calculate the date of pregnancy; ultrasound examination in the third trimester can determine the size and fetal position of the baby; youIt is necessary to do at least one glucose tolerance test or blood glucose screening to determine whether there is a possibility of pregnancy diabetes. At the same time, at the end of pregnancy, no stress test and other diagnostic tests can monitor the baby’s condition.

For you, good self -care can bring great changes.Removing all controllable pregnancy risk factors (such as smoking and drinking), controlling weight in the target range is of great significance -your weight gain target during pregnancy is lower than ordinary pregnant women, and it should be closely monitored by doctors.The Society of American Obstetrics and Gynecologists suggests that the weight increase during pregnancy should be aged 7-9 kg, and obese people should not exceed 7 kg.

Although the range of weight gain is reduced, the daily diet must contain sufficient calories, and it must also contain sufficient vitamins, minerals, and proteins (refer to the diet part of Chapter 5).Daily diet should pay attention to quality, not quantity. This can help you calculate the calories you consume, and it will also help you and your baby get the most nutrition.Adhering to vitamins during pregnancy can give you the nutrition of you and your baby to add another guarantee.(Note that if you have taken a non -prescription medicine that suppress appetite, please stop taking it after pregnancy -they are very dangerous for pregnant women; including those drinks that claim to suppress appetite.) Under the guidance of a doctorMore healthy foods needed by yourself and your baby, but not too much weight.

If you plan to regenerate a baby, you can reach your ideal weight as much as possible before pregnancy, which will make it easier for you to get pregnant.Lean

"I have always been thin, will this affect pregnancy?"

Whether it’s thin or not too thin, pregnancy is an excellent opportunity to eat and become fat.But if you are pregnant when you are particularly thin (BMI ≤ 18.5, refer to Chapter 7 how to calculate the BMI value of "How much weight"), you need to consume more foods -because you may have some potential risks when you are too thin (for example, there may be some potential risks (for example, there may be some potential risks (for example, there may be some potential risks (for exampleThe baby may become less than the age of the fetus [1]). If the expectant mother’s nutrition is insufficient, the risk will be further increased.However, you can remove these risk factors such as good diet (not only enough calories, but also fresh vegetables and fruits, they can provide thin people with lack of vitamins and minerals), vitamin supplementation during pregnancy, and appropriate weight gain.Based on the weight of pregnancy, doctors may suggest that you increase a little more weight -from 13 to 18 kg (the range of women’s weight gain is 11 to 16 kg).If your metabolism is naturally fast, it will be difficult to gain weight. Refer to Chapter 8 "Early Increased Weight Message" to obtain relevant suggestions.As long as you lose your weight normally, you will not encounter other obstacles during pregnancy.Dietary disorders

"In the past 10 years, I have been struggling with neurological bulletin. Now I am pregnant and think that this bad problem should be changed, but it seems that I can’t do it. Will this hurt the baby?"

If you immediately seek appropriate help, you will not hurt your baby.Over the years of neuromodosis, the nutritional reserves of the body are very low. Once you are pregnant, your body and your baby will immediately be in an unfavorable situation.Fortunately, the early pregnancy demand for nutrition is less than that in the late pregnancy, so there is enough opportunity to remedy before the nutritional situation hurts the baby.

So far, the impact of dietary disorders on pregnancy has almost no study.This is largely due to dietary disorders that cause women’s menstrual cycle disorders, and the probability of pregnancy has been reduced from the beginning.However, some studies have given the following suggestions:

• If dietary disorders are controlled, you can also give birth to a healthy baby like others.

• It is very important to let the doctor’s doctor understand your condition. Even if this happens in the past, it is necessary to inform the doctor.

• For those with dietary disorders, consulting professionals who treat this disease are wise choices, which is even more necessary for pregnant women with diet disorders.A professional aid organization is also very helpful (you can check it online, you can also ask a doctor to recommend).

• If you continue to take those drugs, diuretics and other drugs that treat neurological anorexia and neuromodermia, you may endanger your baby’s development.They will discharge nutrients and liquids in the body out of the body, and these substances will provide nutrients for babies, and milk will also form. If these drugs are taken frequently, fetal malformations may be caused.These drugs are the same as any other drugs, unless the doctor was prescribed, it is forbidden to take it.

• Sturch during pregnancy, and then take measures such as vomiting to control weight (that is, the active period of neuromhrobati), which will increase the risk of natural abortion, premature birth and postpartum depression.Now changing these unhealthy habits can allow you to provide nutrition for your baby and yourself.If you encounter difficulties, remember to ask for help immediately.

• Insufficient weight gain during pregnancy can lead to a series of problems, including premature or less than fetal age.

Change diet disorders so that you can provide nutrition for your cute baby -this is the first step, and the most important step you should do.At the same time, we should also understand the weight gain during pregnancy.

Remember the following points:

• As we all know, the body of pregnant women is recognized as the most beautiful and healthier.The shape of the round shape is normal, indicating that you are giving birth to a baby.Pride for this beautiful curve!

• Weight weight during pregnancy.Proper weight gain is essential for the baby’s development and health.

• By gaining a reasonable diet at a proper speed, nutrition will reach the correct place (baby and the surrounding environment of the baby’s life).If you keep keeping within the recommended weight (for women who are too light during pregnancy, the recommended weight gain range is larger), the baby’s weight is very easy to reduce after birth.Gradually increased the weight by a nutritious diet, which can ensure that you restore your pre -pregnancy figure faster after giving birth and make your baby healthier.

• While you let yourself starve yourself, you are also hungry, because you are the only source of nutrition for your baby.If the nutrients of intake are discharged (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, etc.), the nutrition required for the baby’s development is not enough.

• Exercise can help you gain weight reasonably, and at the same time distribute the weight weight to the right part.However, the exercise you choose must be suitable for pregnancy (consult the doctor before exercise). Strong exercise (and excessive exercise) will consume too much energy and increase the temperature of the body. Therefore, you should try to avoid it.

• The weight gain during pregnancy will not be reduced immediately after childbirth.As long as the diet is reasonable, women will return to the weight near pregnancy around 6 weeks after giving birth.If you want to subtract all the weight to increase during pregnancy and restore your body, it takes longer to cooperate with exercise.For this reason, many women with dietary disorders are frustrated by their postpartum figure, and once again suffer from extreme behavior such as overeating vomiting or fasting.These bad habits will hinder postpartum recovery, so that you can not concentrate on taking care of your baby, but also interfere with parent secretion -so for patients with diet disorders, it is very important to continue to seek professional consultation and treatment after giving birth.

You have to remember the most important point: your baby’s health depends on your health during pregnancy.If you have insufficient nutrition, your baby will be able to get nutrition.Positive psychological hints are very useful. You can try to find some posters of some fat and lovely babies, stuck in the refrigerator, office, car, etc. Anyone who can remind yourself to eat healthy.Being around the baby, the baby is gobbled with a big meal!

If you can’t stop overeating, vomiting, laxatives and diuretics, and only half full during pregnancy, ask the doctor if you can be hospitalized to effectively control dietary disorders.After 35 years old, get pregnant

"I am 38 years old and pregnant with the first child. Many books say that pregnancy is very dangerous after 35 years old. Should I worry?"

After 35 years old, you have entered a growing group.In recent decades, the proportion of women’s pregnancy in her twenties has declined, and the proportion of pregnancy after 35 has increased almost 40 %.Although the number of babies born in her forties is relatively small, it has increased by 1/3 in recent years.

If you are over 35 years old, you may realize that there is nothing in life.The risk of pregnancy is already very small today, but it will increase with age.However, setting up a family at a suitable time, the benefits will be far greater than the risks contained. Thanks to the rapid development of medicine, these risks have greatly reduced.

Due to the decrease in fertility, the biggest risk of women at this age is conception.Even if you overwhelm your baby, you may face a bigger problem: the baby is likely to suffer from the Tang syndrome.The prevalence of this disease increases with the increase of the mother’s age: the probability of a 25 -year -old mother gave birth to Donal’s 1/1250, the 30 -year -old mother is 3/1000, and the 35 -year -old mother is 1/300, while the 45 -year -old mother reached 1/35.It is speculated that although Donald syndrome and other chromosomal abnormal diseases are rare, the incidence of babies born of elderly women is still very high.Because the egg cells of the elderly mother are also aging (every woman was reserved for a lifetime of egg cells), which was more affected by harmful factors such as X -rays, drugs, and infections (but as we all know, chromosomal abnormalities are not always caused by egg cells.Struggle, at least 25 % of the Tang syndrome is related to his father’s sperm defects).

There are also many pregnancy risks increase as the age of maternal increases.Pregnant women over 40 years old are more likely to suffer from hypertension (overweight women should be particularly vigilant), diabetes or cardiovascular disease during pregnancy.However, in general, these diseases are more common among the elderly and are usually controllable.Elderly expectant mothers are also more likely to have natural miscarriage (also because of egg cell aging), signs of eclampsia and premature birth. The average time of pain and delivery is longer, and it is easy to accompany complications. Generally, cesarean section and other labor means are required.(Such as an attractor to give birth).Some elderly women are difficult to produce due to the decline in muscle flexibility and joint flexibility, but most maternal mothers, especially those expectant mothers who maintain a good body due to regular exercise and healthy diet, will not have this problem.

Although the risks of expectant mothers over 35 years old have increased slightly, there are many good news, because today’s elderly expectant mothers have received better medical care.Although Tang’s syndrome cannot be prevented, it can be accurately identified through multiple screening and diagnostic examinations during pregnancy.The better news is that many non -invasive screening (reference to Chapter 3 "3 months before pregnancy") is recommended for all pregnant women (regardless of age).Compared with the past, these inspections are more accurate, so as to screen outbound mothers (including people over 35 years of age) who do not need to accept further invasion diagnosis and examination, which can not only save expenses, but also reduce the psychological pressure of expectant mothers.At present, some common mothers can also be better controlled by some common chronic diseases.In addition, drugs and strict medical surveillance can sometimes prevent premature birth, and new medical breakthroughs are constantly reducing the risks in the delivery room.

Is 35 years old a watershed?

Just because your physiological age is 35 years old, it does not mean that you need to check more than young pregnant women.In fact, regardless of age, each pregnant woman should be screened.Moreover, only when the screening results indicate that the risk is increased, it is necessary to consider further invasion prenatal diagnosis.

Medical methods can help you spend your pregnancy safely and give birth to healthy babies, but it is definitely not as good as your efforts (reasonable exercise, healthy diet and high -quality prenatal care).Older growth does not necessarily cause high -risk pregnancy, but many personal risk factors accumulate will put you in the "high risk".Eliminate or minimize the impact of many risk factors as possible, which can make you out of the shadow of age and have healthy babies like other young mothers.

Therefore, relax and enjoy during pregnancy, be full of confidence in yourself!Being more than 35 years old is the best thing in life.Dad’s age

"I am only 31 years old, but my husband is in his fifties. Will his age affect your baby?"

Previously, people believed that their father’s duties in the breeding process were limited to insemination.It was not until the 20th century that people found that the sperm of his father played a decisive role in the child’s gender.It was not until recent decades that researchers suspected that the sperm of the elderly father might increase the risk of abortion or fetal birth defects.Like the mother’s egg cells, the primary sperm cells of the elderly father (uns development sperm) are more affected by environmental harmful factors, and may include genetic genes and chromosomes that are mutated or damaged.In fact, researchers have found that no matter the age of the mother, if the father’s age increases, the risk of natural abortion of pregnant women will increase.In addition, if the father is over 50 or 55 years old (also has nothing to do with the age of his mother), the probability of the baby will also increase the probability of the Chin family syndrome, although the prevalence is lower than that of the elderly mother.

However, these basiss are not decisive, because there are currently fewer research on elderly father.Although there are more and more evidence, the influence of the father’s age factor in natural miscarriage and fetal birth defects cannot be ignored, but genetic consultants are not recommended to perform amniocentesis because of the age of the father.The regular screening of all expectant mothers (no matter how old) can make you feel at ease.As long as the screening results are normal, there is no need to perform amniotic puncture anymore, and you don’t have to worry about the child’s father’s age may have the impact.Genetic consultation

"I have always worried that I may have a genetic disease that I don’t know. Should I conduct genetic consultation?"

Maybe everyone carrys at least one genetic disease. Fortunately, most genetic diseases need to have two matches genes to appear. One gene comes from mother and the other comes from dad.It is easy to appear on children.Both parents may detect genetic diseases before or during pregnancy -but usually only both parents may carry a certain gene, and genetic screening is meaningful.Genetic defects are usually related to race and geographical location.For example, the Caucasian people should check whether there are cystic fibrosis (one of 25 Caucasian people with cystic fibrosis mutations per 25 Caucasus in Europe); Jewish couples who are born in Eastern Europe should check the black mask idiot and sponge brainWhite quality malnutrition and other nervous system diseases.Black couples should do a related examination of sickle cell anemia. Residents and Asians of the Mediterranean region need to check the possibility of thalane (a hereditary anemia).Generally speaking, only one parent is checked when checking, and only one party is checked as positive before checking the other.

As long as one of the parents (such as hemophilia) or patients (such as Heninton Dance), these diseases may be inherited to future generations through a single gene.Moreover, some people should have suffered from the disease in the family. This may not be known to everyone at home. This is the significance of preserving the family’s health file.At the same time, once you plan to get pregnant (or have been pregnant), you need to understand the health of parents, grandparents and other close relatives as much as possible.

Single mother pregnant

Are you a single expectant mother?No partner does not mean to face a long pregnancy process.You can get help from other channels -good friends or familiar relatives can pull your hand and support you to spend your pregnancy spiritually and physical.These people can play the role of a good spouse in the nine months of pregnancy -accompany you to do the production inspection and childbirth training class, and listen patiently when you need to talk about worry, fear and excitement, help youPrepare psychological and material preparations for the arrival of new members of the family. During childbirth, you can guide you, support you, and cheer for you.Also, no one knows your feelings better than single mothers. You can participate in a single mothers club or single mother online assistance organization.

Fortunately, most of the criticisms do not have to worry too much, and the risk of genetic diseases is relatively low, and not every couple needs to conduct genetic consultation.In many cases, the doctors of the delivery examination will talk to you with some of the most common genetic diseases. If you meet the following conditions, please consult the genetic disease doctors or maternal and infant medical experts as much as possible to get more information:

• Blood test results of both husband and wife show that they have genetic disease genes that can be inherited to children.

• A couple with one or more of the children who are accompanied by hereditary births.

• Couples who have experienced 3 or more continuous and natural abortion.

• There have been genetic diseases in the family of the couple.In many cases (such as cystic fibrosis or thalassemia), DNA examination is much easier to check the fetus before pregnancy.

• The husband and wife have congenital defects (such as congenital heart disease).

• Defective screening has been positive.

• Recent relatives get married.The risk of genetic diseases in the childhood marriage of close relatives is very high.

The best time for genetic consultation is that before pregnancy, for those who get married and intend to want a baby, they should conduct genetic consultation before marriage.Professional genetic consultants can analyze the probability of baby’s health based on the genetic background of the husband and wife, and guide you to make a decision to make your baby.However, even if you are pregnant, it is too late to conduct genetic consultations.The consultant will provide advice on prenatal examinations based on the genetic background of your husband and wife. Once you confirm that the fetus has serious defects in the examination, the consultant can also tell you what measures you can take next and how to choose.Genetic consultation has helped countless parents avoid children with serious birth defects, and help parents realize their beautiful wishes to raise a healthy baby.

Is the baby a boy or a girl?Is hair black or brown?Can you inherit your mother’s beautiful mouth and dad’s dimple?Can you have the magnetic voice of Dad and the computing power of your mother?

Before the baby is born (or even before pregnancy), parents can always guess (and bet).But there is a question that prospective parents are most worried but never dare to guess and talk: "Is my baby healthy?"

In the past, the problem was not allowed to get the answer at the moment of the baby’s birth.Today, through prenatal examinations, we can draw conclusions as early as 3 months before pregnancy.Most expectant mothers have to undergo a variety of inspections during the 40 weeks of pregnancy -even if those expectant mothers who have a small probability of birth defects (old and malnutrition, have good prenatal care)EssenceWhether it is a joint screening in the early pregnancy or late ultrasonic diagnosis and Tang’s screening, timely acceptance of these examinations will not have a bad impact on mothers and babies, but also make people’s parents more at ease.

In addition, some diagnosis tests do not require every pregnant woman. These examinations include: fluffy biopsy, amniotic puncture, and more accurate ultrasound examination.For those prospective parents who have a negative screening, they can easily and enjoy the birth of a healthy baby.However, some prospective parents are always too worried. For them, the benefits of prenatal inspections are far greater than risks.Check the suitable crowd before childbirth:

• Age is more than 35 years old (although prenatal inspections are of great significance to elderly mothers and can make you feel at ease, you may not have to do these examinations after consulting your doctor).

• In an environment that may affect fetal development after pregnancy (according to the special circumstances of each person, consult a doctor to see if it is necessary to diagnose prenatal diagnosis).

• History of family genetic medical history or a diagnosis of a certain disease.

• Disease (such as cystic fibrosis or congenital heart disease).

• In the infectious disease environment (such as rubella, bowworm, etc.) that may cause birth defects.

• There is a history of abortion or a history of fetal birth defects.

• Positive results occur during prenatal screening.

If there are certain risk factors during pregnancy, why not have a prenatal examination for diagnosis?The biggest benefit of this type of prenatal inspection is that you can always make you feel at ease.After the vast majority of high -risk mothers have received these inspections, they can eventually give birth to a completely healthy baby -this also means that the prospective parents can enjoy the pregnancy, don’t worry too much.Ultrasonic examination of 3 months before pregnancy

What is an ultrasonic examination?Ultrasound is one of the simplest screening methods.Ultrasonic is a high -frequency sound wave, which is beyond human ear.Ultrasonic can check the fetal condition through the image, so that the test purpose can be achieved without X -rays.Although ultrasonic examinations are quite accurate in most cases, fake negative results often occur in checking the birth defect of the fetus (the baby looks good, but in fact it is not the case) and the false positive result (seemingly problematic, but the facts are factsThe error of not).

The purpose of ultrasound examination 3 months before pregnancy:

• Confirm pregnancy.

• Calculating due date.

• Confirm the number of fetus.

• Determine the causes of abnormalities such as bleeding.

• Determine the position of the birth ring during pregnancy.

• Positioning the fetus before the villi biopsy and amniocentesis.

• Evaluate the risk of chromosomal abnormality as a part of the screening.

How to check?Conventional ultrasound examinations are generally performed by sensors placed on the abdomen.But the vaginal ultrasound examination is recommended 3 months before pregnancy, especially in the early stages of pregnancy.Ultrasonic examination is painless, usually 5 to 30 minutes.If the abdominal ultrasound is to be accepted, the only discomfort is to urinate.

No matter what kind of inspection, you have to lie down.In the abdominal ultrasound examination, the doctor will apply a layer of glue substance to your abdomen to facilitate the spread of sound waves, and then slowly move the sensor.When doing vaginal ultrasound, the doctor needs to put the sensor into the vagina.In these two examinations, the instruments will record the reflex waves after the sound wave encounters the fetus and convert it into an image on the display.

When is the inspection?Depending on the original intention of the examination, ultrasound examination can be performed at any time before pregnancy.Theoretically, as early as 4 and a half weeks after the last menstruation, you can see the gestational sac through ultrasound; the fetal heart can be measured 5 to 6 weeks after the last menstruation (not every pregnant woman can be tested so early).If you want to know the knowledge of ultrasound in the middle of 3 months of pregnancy, please refer to the relevant content of Chapter 3 "Ultrasound Inspection of the 4th to 6 months".

is it safe?Many years of clinical use and research have shown that ultrasonic examinations are not known and have many advantages.Many doctors require pregnant women to have a conventional ultrasound test at least once, but most doctors usually only recommend checking when necessary.Joint screening of 3 months before pregnancy

What is a joint screening?The joint screening of 3 months before pregnancy includes not only ultrasound examination, but also blood tests.First of all, doctors use ultrasonic to measure the thickness of the liquid accumulated in the back of the fetus, that is, the thickness of the fetal neck transparent layer thickness.This transparent thickening indicates that the increase in the risk of baby’s chromosomal diseases, such as Tang’s syndrome, congenital heart disease, and other genetic diseases.

The next blood test is mainly to check the level of pregnancy-related proteins (PAPP-A) and HCG.Both hormones are produced by the fetus and enter the mother’s blood.Based on the thickness of the neck, the level of PAPP-A and HCG, and the age of the mother, the risk of the fetus suffering from the Tang family syndrome and the 18th body syndrome can be comprehensively evaluated.

Some medical institutions also checked whether the fetus had nasal bones with ultrasound.Studies have shown that the nasal nasal bone in the early pregnancy does not mean that the Tang family syndrome is high risk;In general, this inspection is more controversial.

Although compared to other interventional examinations, the joint screening of 3 months before pregnancy can not play a diagnosis, but it can help you decide whether to undergo a confirmed examination.If the results of the joint screening show that the baby’s risk of chromosomal diseases is high, you should receive some confirmed examinations, such as the velvet biopsy (refer to Chapter 3 "Volt Workeling (CVS)") or the amniotic sediment (refer to Chapter 3 ""Amniotic strings").If the results of the joint screening show that the baby’s risk of chromosomal disease is low, the doctor may only recommend that you receive the Tang family screening in the middle of the pregnancy in the middle of the pregnancy to rule out the possibility of the baby’s neuroma defect.Also, repeatedly measure the thickness of the fetal neck transparency can easily cause fetal heart development defects. Doctors usually recommend those pregnant women who have been accepted many times to do the fetal ultrasonic diagram of the fetus at about 20 weeks of pregnancy.EssenceAt the same time, the thickness of the transparent layer of the neck also increases the risk of premature birth slightly, and you should pay close attention to your own situation.

When to check?The joint screening of 3 months before pregnancy is generally carried out in 11 to 14 weeks of pregnancy.

Is it accurate?Joint screening generally cannot directly check whether the fetus suffers from chromosomal diseases, nor can it be diagnosed whether the fetus is abnormal.To be precise, the result of joint screening is to calculate the abnormal probability of the fetus from statistically.Even if the screening results are not normal, it does not mean that the baby must have chromosomal diseases, but it means that he is more risk for illness.In fact, there are also many pregnant women with many screening results and finally gave birth to a healthy and normal baby.At the same time, the screening result cannot guarantee that the baby must be normal, but it can prove that the baby’s probability of chromosomal disease is low.

The joint screening of the first three months of pregnancy can detect about 80 % of the Tang family syndrome and 80 % of the 18th trisomy syndrome.

is it safe?Ultrasonic examination and blood test are painless examinations, and there is no harm to you and your baby.But there is one thing to pay attention to: Ultrasonic screening requires higher requirements for the technical level and proficiency of the operator.In order to ensure that the inspection is as accurate as possible, doctors and ultrasonic technicians who have been trained must be operated by specially trained doctors and ultrasonic technicians (high -quality ultrasound instruments).Keep in mind that the real risk of joint screening is the possible false positive results, which may lead to high risk measures in the future.Therefore, before making the next decision, you must ensure that an experienced doctor or genetic consultant evaluates your screening results.If you have any questions, ask the opinions of other doctors.Voltage biopsy (CVS)

What is a fluffy biopsy?Velvet biopsy is sampled by sampling of the choric membrane on the placenta (a finger -like tissue growing on the placenta) to check whether the chromosomes are abnormal.At present, CVS is generally used to detect Tang’s syndrome, black mask idiot, sickle cell anemia, and most types of cystic fibrosis.However, CVS cannot detect neural tube defects and other anatomical defects.In addition to Tang’s syndrome, there are some special diseases. If there are related family history or parents confirmed that there are carriers, they must be checked.It is currently believed that CVS can detect diseases caused by about 1,000 genes or chromosomes.

How to check?CVS is usually performed in the hospital.Depending on the placenta position, cell sample samples are obtained through vaginal and cervix (cervical CVS) or inserting sampling needles (through the abdomen CVS) from the abdominal wall. None of these methods can not be completely painless.

When taking sampling, some women feel pain (similar to the feeling of dysmenorrhea).Although it takes only one or two minutes to remove the cells, it takes about 30 minutes from the beginning to the end.

If you take cervical CVS examination, you need to lie down, and the doctor will pass through the vagina with a slender tube to the uterus.With the help of ultrasound images, doctors will position the tube between the endometrium and the choric membrane (the placenta on the fetus on the side of the fetus).Doctors will take a little choric membrane samples or sucked it down for diagnosis and research.

During the CVS examination of the abdomen, the belly is also needed to lie downwards. The doctor will use ultrasound to determine the position of the placenta and observe the uterine wall.Then, under the guidance of ultrasound, the doctor will use a acupuncture into the abdomen and the uterine wall to reach the edge of the placenta, and use the needle to take the cell tissue for research.

Because the choric membrane is the prototype of the embryo, check that the choric membrane can clearly understand the genetic structure of the embryo during development.The results of the inspection will be obtained in one or two weeks.

When to check?CVS is carried out at the 10th to 13th weeks during pregnancy.Its main advantage is that it can be checked in the first three months of pregnancy and given reliable results in the early stages of pregnancy. It is confirmed earlier than shellabbing at 16 weeks of pregnancy.If the chromosomes are severe abnormal, early diagnosis is very helpful for those who want to terminate pregnancy, because the abortion in the early pregnancy is simpler and the trauma is smaller.

Is it accurate?The accuracy of CVS in diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities can reach 98 %.

is it safe?CVS is safe and reliable, and the probability of abortion is only 1/370.Try to choose a hospital without record records in this area, and wait until 10 weeks of pregnancy before checking, which can greatly reduce the risk of the sampling process.

Occasionally there will be vaginal bleeding after receiving CVS examination. Don’t panic, tell your doctor in time -especially when the bleeding time exceeds 3 days.At the same time, because CVS has a small probability of caused infection, if a few days after the examination, you must inform your doctor.Comprehensive screening

What is comprehensive screening?Similar to the joint screening of the first three months of pregnancy, including ultrasound examination and blood test.The first blood test of the ultrasound test and detection of PAPP-A concentration of the thick layer of the fetal neck is completed, and the second blood test is required for the 4th to 6 months during pregnancy (check the blood (check the bloodFour of them, refer to the "Four Union Screening" in Chapter 3).The above three types of inspections will be given results.Similarly, comprehensive screening cannot directly diagnose whether the baby has chromosomal diseases and other special diseases. The test results can only provide the possibility of the baby’s illness.Once the results of the examination indicate high risk of disease, you can discuss whether you need to undergo further confirmation examination with your doctor.

When to check?Ultrasonic examinations are generally carried out at the 10th to 14th weeks of pregnancy.The first blood test can be performed on the same day as the ultrasound examination, and the second blood draw is 16-18 weeks of pregnancy.The results of the comprehensive screening will tell you after the second blood test.

Is it accurate?All detection indicators of the first 6 months before pregnancy are obviously effective than observing 3 months in the early or mid -pregnancy period.Comprehensive screening can detect 90 % of Tang’s syndrome and 80 % to 85 % neural tube defects.

is it safe?Ultrasonic examination and blood testing are painless non -invasive examinations, which will not be harmful to mothers and babies.Four -link screening

What is four -link screening?Four substances in pregnant women’s blood are produced by the fetus and entered the mother’s blood circulation.The four -combined screening is to achieve the concentration of these four logo by drawing blood to achieve the screening of the screening.These four logo are: nail protein (AFP), HCG, estradiol, inhibitory A.(Some doctors only detect three of them, called "three -united screening".) High -level tire protein level means that the baby may (not necessarily) has neurotic defects;It means that babies have high risk -suffering from chromosomal abnormal diseases, such as Tang’s syndrome.Like other screening, the four -link screening cannot diagnose birth defects, and can only predict the risk of birth defects.Any abnormal result means that you need to check further.

However, some studies have found that pregnant women with abnormal screening results and further examination (such as amniocentesis) results may still have high risk complications during pregnancy (such as less than fetal age, premature birth, pionelagoonia, etc.)EssenceIf your examination results are as mentioned above, the consulting doctor can take the risk of complications.Remember, the test results are abnormal and the connection with the above complications is not much.

When to screen?Four -link screening can generally be performed at 14 to 22 weeks of pregnancy.

Is it accurate?Four -combined screening can predict about 85 % of neural tube defects, 80 % of the Tang family syndrome, and 80 % of the 18 trio syndrome.However, the fake positive rate of four -link screening alone is relatively high. Only one or two women with positive women with positive factoring will eventually give birth to birth defects.Further inspections found that there are other reasons for the remaining 48-49 pregnant women’s blood sign: more than one baby, the baby is a few weeks or a few weeks older than expected, or it may be an error in the examination.Ultrasonic examinations have confirmed that only one baby is pregnant and the fetal age is correct, doctors usually recommend further implementation of amniotic fluid.

is it safe?Four -combined screening can only be performed with a little blood sample, so it is completely safe.The only risk is that if the results of the four -combined screening are positive, further measures may be taken, and these measures often have greater risks.Before considering further action, make sure to fully consider the opinions of experienced doctors and genetic consultants, and ask them to evaluate your test results again and do not act recklessly.Amnioticism

What is amnioinavia?There are embryo cells, chemicals, microorganisms, etc. in the amniotic fluid surrounded by the fetus. They provide information about the baby that is developing in the stomach, including genome, baby’s growth environment, and baby’s maturity.Extracting and checking these components in amniotic fluid through amniocentesis is an important progress in prenatal examination in recent years. Generally, the following cases need to be accepted:

• Screening (including joint screening, comprehensive screening, comprehensive screening, three or four -united screening, and ultrasonic examination) during pregnancy, and it is necessary to further undergo amniocemic puncture to determine whether the fetus is abnormal.

• Maternal maternal over 35 years old performed amniocentesis, mainly to check whether the fetus suffers from Tang’s syndrome.(Specific mothers with normal screening results can consult the doctor and choose whether to skip this check.)

• Specific mothers who have a chromosomal abnormal child should use amniocentesis.These chromosomal abnormal diseases include: Tang’s syndrome, metabolic disorder, cystic fibrosis, etc.

• Mom is a carrier of the X genetic disease (such as hemophilia). In this case, the prevalence of a male baby is 50 %.

• Both husband and wife are carriers of reinforced genetic diseases, and the prevalence of the baby (whether boys or girls) are 25 %.Common reinforced genetic diseases are: black blindfold idiots, sickle cell anemia, etc.

• Suspieces that there are bowworms, fifth diseases, giant cyt virus, or other fetal infections, and shenches need to be performed.

• It is necessary to use amniocentesis to evaluate fetal lung maturity during the third trimester.(The lungs are one of the organs that are finally mature and can operate independently in the lungs.)

how to proceed?You need to lie flat, and the doctor will locate the position of the fetus and the placenta through ultrasound to ensure that the subsequent procedure is proceeded smoothly.Generally, before the abdominal puncture, the doctor may inject a anesthesia for your local injection. However, due to the painfulness of the pain during puncture and the pain of local anesthesia, doctors often take the step of local anesthesia and perform directly.During the puncture, the doctor will use a hollow needle through your abdomen wall into the uterus and extract the amniotic fluid around the fetus (don’t worry, the baby will get more marshm water to compensate the absorption part).Because of the use of ultrasound positioning, the probability of accidental stabbing the fetus during puncture has been greatly reduced.It takes about 30 minutes to complete from preparation and ultrasound positioning to puncture (the steps in suctioning amniotic fluid often only take one or two minutes).If your blood type is RH negative, after the puncture is completed, you need to inject RH immunoglobulin to prevent RH blood type from inconsistent (refer to Chapter 3 "RH blood type incompatibility").

Regarding the false positive results of screening

Accepting screening usually wants to build confidence in yourself -but often violates things -Sanlian and Silian screening often occur in false positive results (the results of the test are abnormal, and the babies that are finally born in the end have no problems).Such screening seems to be concluded, but it also brings you a lot of unnecessary anxiety and worry.

Therefore, before starting all the examinations, talk to the doctor and understand the high incidence of false positive results. What does false positive results mean?There is a fact that allows you to be at ease -the prospective mothers who get the results of the false positive examinations of more than 90 % have finally given birth to a very normal and healthy baby.Remember, if the screening results are positive, you must talk to the doctor!

When will sheniciasis be performed?Diagnostic amniotic fluid is usually carried out from 16 to 18 weeks of pregnancy, but a few people are carried out from 13 to 14 weeks or 23 to 24 weeks.The results can be obtained in 10 to 14 days after inspection.Some hospitals can also provide fluorescence in situ hybridization, which can quickly calculate the number of chromosomes in the cells in cells.The fluorescent in situ hybridization method can get the results faster (usually within 2 days after the examination, the fast fluorescent in situ hybridization method can be obtained in a few hours after the implementation of amniocentesis), but the results obtained by the fluorescent in situ hybridization method alone can be performed), but the results obtained by the fluorescent in situ method alone method aloneIt is not perfect and often needs to cooperate with other chromosome experiments.Similarly, shellacum puncture can also be performed in the last 3 months of pregnancy to evaluate the fetal maturity of the fetus.

Is it accurate?In terms of diagnosis and exclusion of Tang’s syndrome, the accuracy of amniotic puncture has reached 99 % (the accuracy of normal fluorescence in situ hybridization is 98 %).

is it safe?Pine membrane puncture is very safe, resulting in abortion risk is only 1/1600.A few minutes to a few hours after surgery, you may have mild spasm.Some doctors suggested to rest in bed on the day after surgery, but some doctors don’t take it for granted.There are also a few people who will have mild vaginal hemorrhage or amniotic fluid leakage.If you have the above situation, tell the doctor immediately -generally, these two situations will disappear after a few days, but doctors usually recommend that you rest in bed and observe your situation carefully before the symptoms disappear.

What was frightened by pregnant women

What makes people happy is that most ultrasound examinations show that the baby is normal.But for some women, the second stage of ultrasound examination is likely to mean: in the previous minute, you are still immersed in an irresistible excitement and surprise, because you can see the baby in the stomach with your own eyes through the screen;In minutes, the B -ultrasound technician called the doctor. A few words of the doctor let you fall into the abyss of panic from the ecstasy paradise: "We see some kind of soft label -this may mean that your baby has some problems with some problems""

But before you panic, you must consider the problem objectively: although the "soft label" found in the ultrasound examination (differently according to the situation, 5 % to 10 % of the detection rate in the ultrasound examination during pregnancy) means that the chromosomal disease (The risks of Tang’s syndrome and 18 trisomy syndrome are usually increased, but it turns out that many healthy babies will have similar situations in early ultrasonic examinations.In fact, only a few fetuses that have observed "soft labels" (such as cysts of veins, voices, pelvis dilatation, etc.) finally confirmed that they had chromosomal diseases.In other words, most of the so -called abnormal discovery does not mean that the baby really has abnormalities.

Doctors are likely to suggest that you receive further examination (such as amniotic stabbing) to help confirm the diagnosis.Breathing deeply, remember that high -tech really brings a lot of convenience, but it also brings a lot of unnecessary troubles.Ultrasonic examination of 4 to 6 months

What is an ultrasonic examination?You are likely to perform ultrasound examinations in order to calculate the exact surrogacy date in the first three months of pregnancy, or you may receive an ultrasonic examination in joint screening -no matter what the situation, you may need to be in the 4th to 6 months.Do another ultrasound.This further "targeted" ultrasonic examination is more accurate than the ultrasound examination received in the early pregnancy, and can more detailed observe the anatomical structure and other related development of the fetus.For pregnant women, this ultrasonic examination is also more interesting and can see their baby more clearly.

Nowadays, as ultrasonic images are becoming clearer, non -professional (such as parents) can distinguish where the baby’s head and where are the baby’s buttocks, or even more details.With the assistance of a doctor or technician, using ultrasonic, you can identify the baby’s heartbeat, the curve of the spine, his face, arms, legs -and even you can even see the baby sucking your thumb.Usually, at this time, the baby’s genitals can be seen and speculated that the gender is already. Although the judgment result cannot reach 100 % correct, it depends on whether the baby’s posture is appropriate.

When to check?Ultrasonic examinations in the middle of pregnancy are generally carried out from 18 to 22 weeks.

is it safe?The current research has not been found that ultrasound examination will bring additional risks. On the contrary, it has many benefits.Many doctors will arrange at least one ultrasound for pregnant women.However, most experts still recommend that the ultrasonic examination during pregnancy should be implemented when there is a legitimate reason.

If the problem is found

In most cases, prenatal examinations can get the results of parents expecting: baby develops healthily.However, when you hear the heartbreaking bad news: the baby seems to be a little abnormal -to remember that such information is also very valuable.Together with genetic consulting experts to make a vital decision for this and future pregnancy.The possible options are:

Continue pregnancy.Generally, when the husband and wife believe that this birth defect does not affect the future life of the child, or the husband and wife are opposed to abortion in any case, they can choose to continue pregnancy.It is clearly knowing that the upcoming results will help parents make good preparations for their mental and material aspects. On the one hand, it is necessary to consider that the children who are about to be born will have special needs. On the other hand, it is necessary to considerHow to deal with.After discovering that children have problems, parents usually have some emotions (for example, refusing to accept reality, dissatisfaction, guilt, etc.), and deal with these emotions early before their birth.Parents should understand the children’s special circumstances and special needs in advance to ensure that the child will have a better life in the future.Joining mutual assistance organizations (even online mutual assistance organizations) can help you better deal with the problem.

Terminal pregnancy.If the examination confirms that the birth defect of the fetus is fatal, or it will be seriously disabled. After the review and doctors and genetic consultants confirm the diagnosis, many parents will choose to terminate their pregnancy.After the pregnancy is terminated, the fetal tissue is generally needed to analyze how much abnormal probability is the abnormal probability of the fetus in the future.Most couples understand the relevant situation. Under the guidance of doctors and genetic consultants, they will try to get pregnant again, hoping to give birth to a healthy baby -most people have succeeded.

Preparatory palace treatment.Related treatment includes: blood transfusion (for RH blood type disagreement), shunting or other surgery (such as lifting bladder obstruction), drugs or enzymes (for example, if premature birth, steroid drugs can accelerate the development of the baby’s lung).With the development of science and technology, more and more prenatal surgery, gene regulation and other therapies have been popularized.

Organ donation.If the diagnosis shows that some kind of birth defect plays an irreplaceable negative role in the baby’s future life, you may wish to consider donating one or more healthy organs of the fetus to other newborn in need.Some parents who donated fetal organs have been psychologically comforted from this kind of good deeds.In this case, maternal and infant experts or neonatal doctors will provide useful suggestions.Although the prenatal diagnosis has received good results, it is also necessary to remember that the test results are not 100 % correct.Even the best hospitals, the best doctors, the most experienced technicians, and the most precise instruments will cause errors -at the same time, the false positive rate of the test results is much greater than the false negative rate.Therefore, before determining whether there is a problem with the fetus, further review is often required, and many parties seek the opinions of experts.

You should know that most pregnant women will not encounter these problems. Most of the expectant mothers who receive pre -delivery examination will get the results of their initial expectations: everything is normal for themselves and the baby.

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